I Was Trying To Be Funny But It Came Out as Really Mean: A 5-part documentary starring me.
I Was Trying To Be Loving And Supportive But I Probably Overstepped My Boundaries And Came Off as Creepy: a feature-length film with two sequels and a TV series adaption.
I Was Trying To Tell You I Relate To Your Difficult Situation But It Probably Sounded Like I Was Making It All About Me: a novel saga with several side book adaptions and a movie.
YOU KNOW WHATS HORRIBLE, WHEN YOU HAVE A CRUSH. NOT A FUCKING “OOH ID PUT MY CHIP IN THEIR DIP” BUT A FUCKING CRUSH THATS SO STRONG THAT YOU CAN IMAGINE THEM HUGGING YOU FROM BEHIND, AND PUTTING THEIR FACE TO YOUR BACK OR NECK. THEIR LITTLE SLEEP SOUNDS AND THEIR DISGUSTING MORNING BREATH THAT YOU DON’T MIND BECAUSE YOUR CRUSH IS THAT FUCKING STRONG
This science is so exciting that I’m mad it took me this long to get to my laptop and write it. Some incredible results were presented Thursday morning at #AGU13 from the Hubble Space Telescope team at NASA and ESA: Europa, one of the ice-covered moons of Jupiter…is erupting.
Right now, there are geysers of water erupting from Europa. Let that sink in for a second and then read on.
We already knew that one moon in the solar system had active geysers; Enceladus, which orbits Saturn. Enceladus is a small, ice-covered body with giant cracks at its south pole. The Cassini spacecraft, currently orbiting Saturn, discovered a few years ago that giant plumes of water were shooting from those cracks.
That process means Enceladus is warm on its inside, maybe warm enough to sustain an ocean, maybe even warm enough to sustain life. Enceladus is heated by tidal interactions with Saturn; as the moon moves closer and farther from Saturn, the gas giant’s gravity squeezes the entire moon enough to cause it to heat.
Tidal heating is very important in systems with multiple moons. In the moons of Jupiter, for example, tidal heating supplies the energy to run the gigantic volcanoes of Io. Several other moons of Jupiter, like Ganymede and Europa, are also ice covered, and missions such as Voyager and Galileo discovered that Europa’s surface is covered with the remnants of giant cracks.
Those cracks suggested that there might be liquid water beneath the ice sheet of Europa; an ocean, heated by tidal interactions with Jupiter.
Europa is a big moon, its radius is nearly 6 times that of Enceladus, so it takes more energy to heat a place like Europa. If Europa had an ocean, that ocean has existed for millions of years, maybe enough time for life to evolve within it.
Over the last few months, the Hubble Space Telescope has taken images of Europa and found that, remarkably, it was able to see water. The water was organized towards the south pole of Europa, but it also varied with time and position.
Those measurements mean that right now, there are eruptions of water taking place on Europa. Geysers, giant ones, expelling water from within the body.
The Galileo spacecraft which orbited Jupiter took some images of Europa but it didn’t study it in the kind of detail Cassini has done for Saturn. It’s possible there were erupting geysers at the time Galileo was running and it didn’t see it, or it’s also possible these are new features.
Consider this though…the Cassini mission had to be right next to Enceladus to find geysers on that moon. The Hubble Telescope is very far away from Europa. For Hubble to see these plumes, they have to be enormous. The amount of vapor shooting out of Europa based on the Hubble measurements is 35 times the amount shooting out of Enceladus.
The Cassini spacecraft has been able to fly through the plumes at Enceladus and actively sample them. There is a mission on the way to Jupiter called Juno which will characterize the gas giant, including imaging equipment that might be able to target these plumes. However, it won’t even be able to do the kind of detailed investigation of them that Cassini has done for Enceladus. To do that will take another mission.
The Planetary division at NASA has indicated that flying to Europa with a major mission is one of their top 2 priorities for science in the next decade and multiple mission concepts have been proposed to go to Europa, including orbiters and landers. In the current funding environment even going there to do a little science is almost impossible, but if the NASA budget situation becomes less dire, in the future these plumes are an incredible scientific opportunity.
It’s really tough to land on Europa’s surface while still having power since it’s an orbiting moon. It’s even tougher to drill through kilometers of ice to reach the ocean. But now we know there are active geysers on Europa. Something is bringing huge volumes of liquid water to the surface and ejecting it into space. If Europa has an ocean, we can sample that ocean just by getting to orbit of the moon, we don’t need to land on it.
And if there’s life in that ocean, we might be able to find it being shot out of the geysers.
This is a very exciting scientific discovery and congratulations go out to the NASA and ESA teams who made it. This should shape the next decade+ of planetary exploration in the solar system.
Image credit: 1, 2
You actually don’t even have to introduce yourself if you don’t want to, i don’t need an a/s/l, we don’t have to do the “hey whats up” “not much you?” thing, you can just say “so at school yesterday this idiot said…” in my ask box and I will gladly converse with you. Like seriously I will just talk to you like we’re best friends.
hey followers is everyone feeling okay??? do you want some tea??? hot chocolate??? *puts in your favorite movie* *wraps you in fluffy blankets* *kisses your forehead* *whispers* i love you so much i just want everyone to be happy and safe
1st row: period panties
2nd row: comfortable undies
3rd row: fuck me draws
^ thank you for the explanation
theyve started selling lucky charms at tescos and ive never had any american cereal before and it has little tiny marshmallows in it and im haivng heart palpitations this is so sugary my body isnt used to this ive been living off cornflaeks for the last 16 years why are there marshmallows in my cereal who came up with this idea i feel like a bag of sugar just jizzed in my veins there are sweets in my fucking cereal is that even legal im so confused
ARE YOU READY TO FUCKING FLY
I will always try and reblog this.
My mom is a flight attendant and I can confirm this is 100% true when they have an empty flight, the crazy ones even go “cart surfing” which is where they get the pilot the go down a bit until they get on top of the beverage cart, then the get him to pull up and they go flying down the aisle until they hit a chair and fly off.
I just choked on my lunch
a/n: I started this for dryadalis on her birthday but it turned into multi chapt and then I got behind due to illness, NaNo, vacation and family crisis. Things are calming down now so I am catching up my WIPs! This is AU. Dryadalis mentioned she liked AU/Mythology so this is sort of an original take on mythology with Dark Ten/Rose.
It was a typically rainy day as Rose made her way down the dirty wet street to her favorite chippy. It had been two days since she’d seen the Doctor in the alley and watched him defeat the creature that had attacked her and Mickey. Of course, Mickey remembered none of it and was too busy moaning and suffering from a hangover the next day. Rose gave him no sympathy and told him he was on his own the next time he got pissed at the pub. She loved Mickey but she was beginning to realize she wasn’t in love with him. They were more friends with benefits than anything and that was no longer enough for her.
Since meeting the mysterious Doctor, she realized there was much more to life than a night at the pub, chips and work. She wanted to know more, needed to know, really. When she reached the chippy, she pulled down her pink hoody off her head, her blond hair damp from the dreary London drizzle and stared at the smeared and foggy glass door. Some small voice inside her whispered that walking through that door was going to change everything. She bit her lip as she considered what meeting the Doctor for chips would mean.
He was dangerous. She was sure of that but there was something else about him that drew her. Maybe she was drawn to the danger or the excitement? Then again, he was a bit foxy with that slim fitting suit and that gorgeous tousled brown hair. No, she thought, it was more than that. There was some essence or aura about him, some secret or inner pain that made her want to find out who he was and what he’d done to have such darkness oozing out of him. When she looked deep into his eyes, and how they sometimes blackened into dark pits into his soul, she felt like she had to grab his hand and pull him back out of that abyss. She needed to know more about him and the odd world he existed in.
Something inside of her clicked. A choice had been made and there was no turning back to the life she knew. There was more out there and she was going find out what it was about. As she pushed the door open, warm chip scented air enveloped her. She inhaled enjoying the familiar scent and walked toward the counter pausing when she felt someone looking at her. Off to the side, in the booth where she first had chips with him, was the Doctor staring intently at her. He had a basket of chips and two drinks on the table. Rose played with the zip on her jacket before slowly wandering over to him and sliding into the torn vinyl seat opposite her mysterious Doctor.